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Tumor markers are substances found at higher than normal levels in the blood, urine, or body tissue of some people with cancer. Although cancer cells often produce tumor markers, healthy cells in the body may produce them as well. Tumor markers are also called bio markers


There are many different types of tumour markers, including

The doctor will decide if further tests, procedures, follow-up care or additional treatment are needed.


New approaches to control tuberculosis (TB) worldwide are needed. In particular, new tools for diagnosis and new biomarkers are required to evaluate both pathogen and host key elements of the response to infection. Non-sputum based diagnostic tests, biomarkers predictive of adequate responsiveness to treatment, and biomarkers of risk of developing active TB disease are major goals. Here, we review the current state of the field. Although reports on new candidate biomarkers are numerous, validation and independent confirmation are rare. Efforts are needed to reduce the gap between the exploratory up-stream identification of candidate biomarkers, and the validation of biomarkers against clear clinical endpoints in different populations. This will need a major commitment from both scientists and funding bodies.

Biomarkers for diagnosing Active Tuberculosis

We may distinguish biomarkers related to the pathogen and to the host (Fig Given below). From the pathogen perspective, Mtb products could be detected directly in blood, sputum or urine. Mtb DNA can be detected in blood and urine of pulmonary TB patients with a better sensitivity than Mtb culture from the same biological fluid.The Mtb cell wall component lipo-arabino-mannan (LAM) has been proposed as TB biomarker; however the available commercial test on urine has a poor sensitivity.28 This can be partly enhanced by other LAM assays.29-31 Although unsatisfactory as yet, in HIV-infected patients the Mtb DNA and LAM detection in urine may be an important tool to consider especially for those advanced cases with low CD4 T-cell counts. The Mtb Ag85 complex is a 30-32 kD family of three proteins (Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C) with enzymatic Mycolyl transferase activity involved in the coupling of mycolic acids to the arabinogalactan of the cell wall and in the biogenesis of the cord factor.3The detection of Ag85 in blood and urine, however, shows highly variable performance in different studies.